We offer screening with the primary intent to prevent tumors.
This can be done traditionally, by recognizing pre-tumor conditions, but we also offer primary prevention by identifying genetic predisposition. Predisposition can be indicated by mapping the family medical history (to see if there are any disease that occured more frequently than the average in the family). Based on these data and specially targeted genetic diagnostic tests the individual’s risk can be assessed.
Assessing individual risk may help in preventing tumors – and this is our number one priority, because of the difficulty of treating these diseases. However, having a clear understanding of individual susceptibilities is also important because the patient can avoid harmful factors that play a part in the development of other diseases (for instance cardiovascular, neurological, etc.), and can apply protective mechanisms to prevent or delay these diseases.
Screening for cervical cancer
Even if a woman has no complaints it is advisable to be screened for gynecological cancers annually. Cervical cancer can be screened with the greatest reliability. This is done by cytological examination of the smear obtained from the surface of the cervix and the cervical canal. According to our current knowledge, cervical cancer develops in the case of HPV (human papillomavirus) infection. Since the introduction of HPV vaccine and the development of HPV screening methods that supplement the traditional gynecological examination, screening for cervical cancer has somewhat changed. We make use of the benefits of HPV vaccination and focus on cervical cancer prevention. However, primary prevention (i.e. vaccination) does not do away with the need for regular smear tests, so all sexually active women are recommended to see a gynecologist once a year even if they have no symptoms. Women who were found to have developed precancerous conditions at earlier tests should see the gynecologist more frequently irrespective of whether they have had cone biopsy or not. Cone biopsy is a minor operation generally performed under local anesthetic, where the doctor cuts out a cone of tissue from the cervix. Women who experienced other gynecological tumors or smoke or had other sexually transmitted disease (particularly the hig-risk HPV infection and HIV infection) should also be seen more frequently.
Breast examination is done by routine palpation. As the mammary glands are easiest to palpate in the first half of the menstrual period women are advised to schedule the examination a week after their period. If there is any suspicion or if the family or patient history so indicates, it is possible to screen the breasts ultrasonically. It is important for women to self-test the breasts periodically, preferably at the post-menstrual stage indicated above.
Ovarian cancer cannot be screened by palpation. Approximately half of the cases where the ovarian tumor can be palpated or the patient has developed symptoms are incurable. Therefore if the family history includes ascendants who had ovarian or breast cancer, or if the patient’s history has indications it may be necessary to have a vaginal ultrasound screen with flow mapping as well as special blood tests for tumor markers.
Other tests and examinations offered by the Centre
- Modern diagnostics and treatment of different inflammatory diseases with special regard to recurrent chronic infections. Tests should involve both partners in the interest of lasting result.
- Our STD Clinic offers screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. The tests follow the protocol described in the methodological circular of the Hungarian College of Dermatologists and STD Specialists (published in the Hungarian Official Journal of Health Egészségügyi. Közlöny, Vol. LII, No. 11, pp 1509-1515, 23 May 2002).
- Diagnostics of lower abdominal pain of unclear origin.
- Ultrasonic examination of ovarian cysts; if necessary, one-day surgery with our competent and experienced professional staff and fully equipped modern theatres.